January 2020

Students and staff from the Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science, and their Cloudbridge group leaders. (Week 1)

At Cloudbridge, we started off the new year (and new decade) right with two weeks of inspiring visits from 11th and 12th graders from the Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science. This study abroad program, coordinated through Western Kentucky University, is designed to introduce students to a Costa Rican cloud forest, including the flora and fauna. While on site, participants focused on an an area of research, such as butterfly diversity, bird monitoring, or tree diversity/carbon sequestration, with the goal of learning basic field research techniques, while enhancing their knowledge of the importance of our global rainforests and their impact on the environment.

One student holds a glasswing butterfly (Greta oto) during fieldwork to determine feeding habits in butterflies.
The birding group woke up early in order to hit the trail at 6 a.m. with Cloudbridge resident biologist Jeff.
These students examine various species of plants, gathering important data related to their hypothesis.

The Gatton students also participated in afternoon activities, such as this presentation on climate change, let by expert and activist Linda Moskalyk.

After the presentation, students broke up into groups facilitated by Cloudbridge research interns and volunteers. They openly brainstormed and discussed ways to to reduce carbon emissions on a governmental, local, and personal level.

But of course, it wasn’t all work and no play. There was plenty of time to chill on the deck, or rest in hammocks at the dorms.

And what’s a proper study abroad program without a little cloud forest yoga?

After finishing with the first week of students, the second group arrived, and we dove into another exciting experience in the cloud forest. It sure is delightful to work with young scientists!

Gatton Academy of Mathematics and Science: Week 2

Research Interns and Volunteers

We always look forward to welcoming new research interns and volunteers, who bring so many skills and interesting perspectives! Here are a few of our recent additions.

 I am Nele and I come from Germany. I chose to come to Cloudbridge as a volunteer because I love nature. Therefore, Costa Rica and especially Cloudbridge is the perfect place to be. The landscape and view up here is incredible!
Hello, I’m Maliya from Vancouver, Canada. I graduated with a degree in biology in 2016 and have since worked a variety of research and field jobs. I came to Cloudbridge as a birding intern because I wanted to experience the cloud forest and learn about all the amazing birds and wildlife here. 
Hi, my name is Áoife. I’m from Ireland (hence the unpronouncable name) and recently just finished my undergrad in Biology. I came to Cloudbridge to gain more experience in environmental field work and different conservation practices. I am currently working as the camera trap intern here at Cloudbridge.
I’m Colin. During my Public Health studies I’ve researched how tree planting is the most cost effective solution to climate change and developed an awareness of the socio-economic and environmental benefits that contribute towards such an overwhelming business case for investment in re-forestation projects.
This has encouraged me to explore my dream of replanting a woodland in the UK.
So when planning a career break I knew I should volunteer in a similar field.  Hence, I’m very grateful to Cloudbridge for the opportunity to learn about this project and its amazing contributors.
I leave wanting to stay and feeling inspired to realise my own ambition. 
I’m KC, and I’m volunteering here are Cloudbridge with my partner Colin. We’re here (in this amazing place!) for a few short weeks, our adventure here is part of a bigger, year-long adventure around Central, South America, and beyond!
We’re both here because of our love of nature and trees! We came to help where we can and be part of something. We’re lucky to be spending our time here with an amazing bunch of likeminded people doing good for the planet!
Hello, I’m Camille.  I’m 24 years old, and I study animal behavior (ethology) in Paris, France. I came to Cloudbridge for 5 months to do my graduate internship. I will study flight initiation distance of birds in the reserve. I’m so happy to be here, it will be a great experience!

Suggested Reading

This past month, Australia has seen some of the most severe wildfires that modern humans have experienced. Aboriginal Australians feel that respecting their cultural heritage and land management traditions could help mitigate future damages. Read more about this fascinating subject here

The World Economic Forum, which recently took place in Davos, is a space where economic leaders discuss strategies to face the coming challenges brought by climate change. Some speakers at this forum advocate for humans to learn from the forest. More info here

Here at Cloudbridge, the forest brings us health and well-being on many levels. In this piece, a skeptic describes the benefits of forest-bathing.

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December 2019

December has been a lively month at Cloudbridge. On Christmas Day, we gathered for an afternoon of festivities, including a highly competitive game of croquet, pictured above.

We also shared international foods in a community potluck. Here, our bird intern Amauta dishes up traditional rice porridge, a recipe from her family in Norway. One lucky person had an almond in their porridge, winning a gift of chocolate.

Once everyone had their food, we gathered around the table to talk about how fortunate we feel to be together at Cloudbridge!

What holiday gathering would be complete without a white elephant gift exchange? Favorite presents included treats from the local chocolate shop, linens handmade in Cambodia, an Ultimate frisbee, and a bottle of Costa Rican wine.

Research and Interns

Although we said goodbye to a plethora of research interns and volunteers in December, we also welcomed some wonderful new staff, interns, and volunteers.

My name is Jeff Roth.  This is my third year coming to Cloudbridge, and my second as the Resident Biologist.  I have worked as a Field Biologist ever since I graduated with a degree in Biology in 2014.  I have worked all across North America focusing primarily on birds.  It was my passion for birds that first brought me to Cloudbridge and it’s what keeps bringing me back.

Hi, my name is Thimo, and I’m 21 years old. I’m a biology student from Holland, who loves to spend time in nature. I applied as a Cloudbridge volunteer currently helping on ongoing trail and tree maintenance throughout the reserve.

Hi! We are Greg and Christine and we volunteered at Cloudbridge for two weeks in December. We are both from Winnipeg, Canada and work as an engineer (Greg) and chemist (Christine) for our day jobs. This year we decided to take extended leaves of absence from our day jobs to explore the world; we choose to spend the last of our time off volunteering at Cloudbridge as a way to learn about conservation and give back to the community.

During our time at Cloudbridge we helped set up fruit traps, collect animal habitat data, assisted with frog, bird and owl surveys and relocated epiphytes off of a fallen tree – not to mention we did a lot of hiking. We really enjoyed learning about the on going research projects and the history of the nature reserve. We hope to be back one day.

Hello, I’m Alesha. I am a graduate student from the University of Miami studying soil and water nutrients at Cloudbridge. I have a degree in biochemistry. Currently, I am completing my degree in Exploration Science. I am excited to see where this research will lead thanks to Cloudbridge.

Here, our volunteers are working to re-establish the abundance of epiphytes in the cloud forest. They have collected them from the ground and are placing them in spaces where they will thrive.

Pictures from Staff, Interns, and VolunteersWhat’s cuter than a venomous snake trying to hide behind a tiny leaf? Nothing, we say! This pic was captured by our science coordinator Jenn near the staff house one evening.

Research intern Aoife captured an armadillo on one of her camera traps.

Do you see what we see? A very special moment happened when our frog researcher Sophia, and her assistant Thimo, spotted a margay in a tree during a night survey. We’re pretty sure this will be a lifelong memory for both of them.

This male Quetzal was spotted by resident expert Tom Gode in a tree not far from our main trail.

 This silk moth was hanging out near the classroom, attracting much attention.

This beautiful click beetle, photographed by guest Steve Lustgarden, looks like it’s all dressed up and ready for a party.

Recommended Reading

It’s pretty exciting to see 16-year-old climate change activist Greta Thunberg chosen as TIME’s Person of the Year.

Want to learn a bit more about what constitutes a healthy forest, in order to combat climate change? This article in Scientific American will help you see the forest for the trees.

If you’re planning to visit a national park in Costa Rica in 2020, you’ll likely be covered by an insurance policy in case of injury, as highlighted in this piece in the Tico Times.

The European Green Deal is a progressive model for the world. Learn about Europe’s goals to become a climate-neutral continent by 2050 here.

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November 2019

Two male White-crested Coquettes having a territorial dispute.  Photo credit: Laura Hulbert

October went out with a bang with our Halloween party, held on the Day of the Dead. 

After the party, we had to gather our strength at the river.

November has been a very productive month. We’ve had interns arrive, and have moved forward with various projects on the Reserve, including the installation of metal barriers to protect our Quetzal nesting boxes, and the construction and use of a fire-pit.

Greg installs a barrier to prevent predators from reaching our Quetzal nesting boxes.

Staff and interns enjoy the fire-pit.

We are pleased to announce that we have identified a new species on the Reserve.  The Bicolored Hawk (Accipiter bicolor) was spotted by our interns Amauta and Laura.

The Bicolored Hawk.  Photo credit: Laura Hulbert.

Research and interns

As part of the Ecology of Plant and Hummingbird Interactions (EPHI) project that spans several countries in Central and South America, we’ve had three Costa Rican women working on a hummingbird-plant interaction study in the reserve over the last few months. They have been conducting pollinator exclusion experiments on several flower species by covering flowers with bags to prevent the hummingbirds from accessing the flowers and then seeing how that effects the nectar and flowers. These ladies have been visiting for 2 days every 2 weeks and we look forward to hearing the results of their studies! Left to right: Silvia, Karen, and Yandry.

The mesh bags serve as a deterrent for hummingbirds from selected flowers.

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Hi! My name is Amauta, I am half Norwegian and half Bolivian residing at the moment in Oslo. I have a bachelor’s in biology, and I want to become an ornithologist. After observing birds in boreal regions and the arctic, I was curious to see how the birds in the tropics would be. After being here a week, I am amazed! I will be collecting bird data in point counts and walking surveys.

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Ciao, my name is Daniel and I am from Italy. I came to Cloudbridge as a volunteer to gain some experience in the environmental field and to meet new people from all over the world.

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Hi, my name is Dora and I’m a student from England. I’m working as a research assistant here at Cloudbridge and am really enjoying learning more about the flora and fauna of Costa Rica. It’s also great gaining some research and conservation experience before I get to study biology at university next year.

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Hi, I am Stefan, and I am working in a molecular biology lab in Freiburg, in the southwest of Germany. I came to Cloudbridge to volunteer for three weeks, aiming to gain some field work experience and to enjoy the amazing cloud forest. In Cloudbridge, I am assisting the ongoing research, reforestation and maintenance efforts. The diversity of plants, fungi and animals in the forest is just amazing! Volunteering in Cloudbridge is an extremely rewarding experience, and I am looking forward to coming back some day.

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Hi!  I’m Sarah, an Earth Observation scientist from the UK who came to Cloudbridge as a volunteer for 2 weeks to learn about the research projects being carried out here.

Pictures from our interns and camera traps

 We captured images of a curious ocelot.

This collared peccary was curious to explore the camera trap.

Jacob Jackson, the Real Herp Hero, has finished his internship here at Cloudbridge, but he has generously shared some of the amazing pictures he took.

Warszewitsch’s Frog (Rana warszewitschii).  Photo credit: Antoine Jeunet

     Lichen Katydid (Markia hystrix).  Photo credit: Greg Oakley

White-crested Coquette.  Photo credit:  Laura Hulbert.

Recommended Reading

This newspaper article explores the effects of light pollution on insect populations.

Nobel-prize winning economist Joseph Stiglitz explains why GDP is not an ideal measure of progress, here.

Closer to home, in the Southern region of Costa Rica, there is dispute about new pineapple fields slated to be developed near the Ramsar-designated Terraba-Sierpe wetlands.

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October 2019

October has been another fun and exciting month here at Cloudbridge Nature Reserve.    As many of you know, October can be a rainy time of year in our part of Costa Rica, but this year it hasn´t been too bad.  We have a great team right now, and have been moving forward with various projects.

We have continued to participate with the environmental education program, which next year will begin to be implemented in local schools.  Our most recent contribution is with a demonstrative erosion box.

Antoine, Greg, and Elena Vargas from the UNDP Productive Landscapes program, test out the demonstration.

In Costa Rica, one of the main holidays celebrated in October is the “Día de las culturas”.  On October 12th, 1492, Christopher Columbus “discovered” America, though it is important to note that other cultures were living here already.  For this reason, the date is now used to acknowledge the cultural diversity of Costa Rica, including eight indigenous cultures, Afro-Costa Ricans, and of course the Hispanic heritage.

Locals from San Gerardo wearing traditional dress pose in front of one of San Gerardo´s first homes.

We are happy to announce that Cloudbridge has continued expanding our recreational activities for staff, volunteers and interns.  The newest addition to our excercise facilities is a volleyball court.  Some brave souls have even been playing in the rain!

And for indoor activities, our recently departed intern Emma Bowman has handmade a lovely Cloudbridge Monopoly game.

The Cloudbridge Monopoly game has already been put to good use.

 

INTERNS AND VOLUNTEERS

Emma Bowman finished her research on hummingbird feeding dynamics this month. She spent the last few months observing hummingbirds feeding along the trails of the reserve as well as in the gardens around the buildings. The flowers that were most commonly fed from included: Yellow Jacobinia (Justicia aurea), a wax mallow (Malvaviscus concinnus), and a common pea plant (Phaseolus vulgaris) that is a remnant in the forest from when the area was farmed. While these plants were the most popular overall, some plants were exclusively fed upon by one species, while several hummingbird species might visit other plant species (see graphs below). Graphs representing which hummingbirds fed on which flowers

Her study produced many interesting findings. Comparing the trail and ornamental sites, she found that females preferred the trail sites, while males preferred the ornamental sites. She thought this may be because males are more territorial than females and as the ornamental sites had a much higher value than the trail sites (more flowers in a smaller area), they would gather there and defend those sites. This was particularly true for the White-Throated Mountain Gems (Lampornis castaneoventris) where the males were exclusively found at ornamental sites, and the females almost exclusively found on the trails.

She also found that 57% of the feeding events she observed were ‘illegitimate’. This means that instead of feeding from the front of the flower (and helping to pollinate the flower), the hummingbirds would pierce the flower at the base and steal the nectar without pollinating the flower. This is very interesting and seems to mean that some other organism would be helping to pollinate these flowers.

And finally, in support of the observations of Harry Elliott and Charlotte Smith from earlier this year, she also documented several hummingbirds feeding directly from the fruits of the ‘Snot Tree’ (Saurauia montana). This is a very unusual behaviour and has only been documented on a couple of occasions in the literature, so is exciting to see it again!Her final report is almost finished and we are looking forward to getting it up on the website for everyone to read!

    

Justicia Aurea (Yellow Jacobinia) and Malvaviscus concinnus were the flowers most commonly fed from.

Image: Phaseolus vulgaris, or common pea plant.

Stripe-tailed Hummingbird feeding from the fruits of Saurauia montana.
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My name is Philippe and I am a bachelor student of biology from Leiden, the Netherlands. I came to Cloudbridge to learn more about the tropics, gain more fieldwork experience and to enjoy the beauty of this forest. During my time at Cloudbridge I will be doing a habitat assessment to create more knowledge on the specific habitat of five (near) threatened bird species.

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Hello!  We are Dani and Elsa and we are a couple.  I (Dani) am from Uruguay and I (Elsa) am Italian and we are both living in Spain, in Malaga.  We have left our jobs in Spain for a few months to undertake a trip from Costa Rica to Peru combining travel with volunteering related to environmental protection such as reforestation and conservation.

Our desire is above all to carry out field work in areas of forests and jungles.  The first stage is in Cloudbrige, where I (Elsa) had visited in 2012 and have  now fulfilled my desire to return.  For me, Dani, this is my first time in Costa Rica, and my first adventure of this kind.  Our common goal is to contribute everything we can to this project that we love and that gives us the opportunity of  learning about what we like, soaking up the energy of this magical place.

Here at Cloudbridge, we are very thankful for all of the work that Dani and Elsa have put into our electrical installations, infrastructure and more.  Thank you!

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Hi, my name is Sophia, and I am from the San Francisco Bay Area in California. I am here as part of my gap year to gain more field research experience before I start university. During my time at Cloudbridge, I will be conducting surveys on glass frog behaviors as well as assisting with the other projects. Super excited for the next few months!

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From left to right: Ben, Jacob and Max, the Tree Musketeers from Bangor University.

My name is Ben and I’m a Forestry student from Bangor University in North Wales. I have travelled to Cloudbridge with 2 of my classmates as part of a work placement year. I am from Essex in England and am formerly a tree surgeon / landscape gardener. I chose to come to Cloudbridge as I was keen to undertake research within a tropical cloud forest. It seemed an exciting opportunity, completely different to anything I had experienced before. I have just taken over a project at Cloudbridge, I will be looking at natural regenerated vs planted sites and comparing the carbon storage. I am at Cloudbridge for another 7 months and look forward to meeting lots of new people along the way!

Hola I´m Jacob from Belfast! I´m here with my dos amigos from university.  We study forestry in Bangor Wales. I am here in Cloudbridge for 7 months as part of my work placement as I am interested in tropical forestry. I aim to carry out my own project and aid in others.  Pura vida!

My name is Max and I’m from the UK. I study forestry at Bangor University in North Wales and am here with two of my classmates, using our time at cloudbridge as an international work placement.  During my time here I will be taking on some ongoing research projects and maintaining the trees of the beautiful nature reserve.  I chose to come to Costa Rica because I have always been interested in tropical forestry as the trees and plants here are so different to anything that grows in the UK.  Coming on an international placement is also a great way to meet new people from all over the world.

IMAGES FROM OUR CAMERA TRAPS AND INTERNS

The Tapir (danta) is the largest terrestrial mammal of the neotropics.

This Margay was caught enjoying its dinner.

Here the camera has trapped the most exotic species of all!

Jacob Jackson has shared some of the images he has captured with us.  The snake is Urotheca guentheri (Gunther´s brown snake).

RECOMMENDED READING

This month marks the one-year anniversary since the IPCC released its Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5ºC.  I´m sure many of you remember the splash that this report made around the world, effectively communicating the urgency of our situation.  For those of you who have not yet browsed this landmark special report, you can do so here: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/

In the same vein of exploring our climate emergency, and proposing solutions, author and activist Naomi Klein has recently published her newest book, On Fire: The (Burning) Case for a Green New Deal.  For more information, please check here: https://naomiklein.org/on-fire/

And just in case you still think that the scientists may be exaggerating, this article explains why this is not the case https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/25/the-real-reason-some-scientists-downplay-the-risks-of-climate-change

This years Nobel Prize winners in the field of economics have argued that a more humane perspective should replace our need for rapid growth.  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/30/changing-world-better-economics-honest-humane?CMP=share_btn_link

Spending time in the forest, whether it be here at Cloudbridge or anywhere else with trees, allows us to slow down, and perceive things that in our hectic lives would usually be passed by.  In this excerpt from her book “Erosion:  Essays of Undoing”, author Terry Tempest urges readers to slow down and listen to the trees.  https://www.latimes.com/entertainment-arts/books/story/2019-10-07/erosion-terry-tempest-williams-excerpt?fbclid=IwAR3bp640yPbOgyJq4A5hnZyezmwaOKHa2rP7ROzfo7SHfLSMXAtCkgsFYPc

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September 2019

September is Costa Rica´s civic month – the country´s Independence is celebrated on the 15th, with parades, folkloric dance, singing of patriotic hymns and delicious typical food. In 1821, Central America (including Costa Rica) was granted Independence from Spain, which had colonized the region beginning in the 16th century. Celebrations also include a “desfile de faroles” or lantern parade on the evening of September 14th, where schoolchildren show off their homemade, colorful lanterns.

This year, September has also seen some of the largest youth-led climate demonstrations, with over 4 million people mobilizing worldwide on Sept. 20th, to kick off the “Global Week for Future”. On that day, staff and interns from Cloudbridge met with other local groups and individuals to discuss how we can make an impact. The main takeaways from this conversation were: Agroforestry networking, involving local communities, interest in biofuels (using solar technology for distillation of alchol), producing educational media from our community and supporting existing recycling/environmental projects, and expanding where possible. Inspired by this meeting, on September 26th there was a demonstration in the park of San Isidro.

Climate demonstration in the park of San Isidro.  Photo credit:  Anthony García

Trying to promote climate action not only in Costa Rica but also in Canada!

What we´ve been up to…

Jennifer, our Scientific Coordinator, gave a presentation at the Universidad Nacional’s (UNA) Día Internacional del Turismo (International Tourism Day) about the evolution of Cloudbridge as a reforestation project and as a reserve and the role tourism has played in those changes. The day brought together students from the tourism course at UNA, tourism operators from Perez Zeledon, tourism and environmental officials from the government, and a couple of nature reserves to discuss a variety of sustainable tourism related topics and showcase tourism in the region.

Jennifer Powell at the National University (UNA Sede Región Brunca)

Cloudbridge has also been collaborating with other environmental groups to design an environmental education program, which will be taught in local schools beginning next year. Under the auspices of the UNDP´s “Conserving Biodiversity in Production Landscapes” program, this joint effort will teach schoolchildren about various environmental aspects. Subjects such as biodiversity, protected areas, agroecology, responsible consumption, and others, will be adressed, always with the underlying themes of social justice and climate change.

Jenn and Greg participate in a meeting for the environmental education program. Photo Credit: Anthony Garcia

Cloudbridge now has a small outdoor excercise facility! Just in case all that hiking wasn´t enough, interns and volunteers now have the opportunity to do pull-ups and many other calisthenic activities, on our new bars.

Interns and staff

Our most recent bird intern, Fergus Jackson, finished his time with us this month. Fergus was working on the long-term bird monitoring survey. In his final presentation, he looked at the distribution of hummingbirds within the reserve. Overall, he found that the largest numbers of hummingbirds were found at the point counts that were lower down in the reserve. Looking at the 4 most abundant hummingbirds, he found that White-throated Mountain-Gem were found at all the survey sites and were most abundant at the lowest sites. This was similar for the Stripe-tailed Hummingbird, although there were 2 sites where this hummingbird was not found. However, they were also found in moderate numbers at the highest sites. Lesser Violetears were not found at all the sites and had distinct site preferences, mostly at mid-altitude sites. Scintillant Hummingbirds also showed some site preferences for mid-altitude sites, and were found in very low numbers or not at all at the highest sites.

White-throated Mountain-Gem, Photo credit: Leonardo Valverde.

Stripetailed Hummingbird. Photo Credit: Jonathan Slifkin.

Graph credit: Fergus Jackson

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This month we have been pleased to welcome Antoine as our new Volunteer Coordinator and Social Media guru. Welcome aboard!


My name is Antoine and I am from France. After my studies in tourism and a year working as a guide in a museum in France, I decided to quit for more international experiences. I chose Costa Rica for the vision of the government about tourism and ecology, but I also secretly hope to see a dinosaur since I realised as a kid that Jurassic Park is supposed to happen in this country.

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It has also been a pleasure to welcome our intern, Jacob Jackson.

Hello all my name is Jacob Jackson also known as The Real Herp Hero! I am an ascending conservationist and avid herpetologist/photographer. I was born and raised in Baltimore, MD and currently live in Laguna Hills, CA. Before starting my adventure at Cloudbridge I was a small time Zookeeper working with reptiles, arachnids, and amphibians doing educational hands on presentations as well as feeding our zoo animals. My journey brought me to Cloudbridge because I know that I want to work in conservation but not along what lines I want to operate under. So this amazing nature reserve high up in the mountains is my way of figuring out where I desire to take things next; hopefully in the direction I have been dreaming of! I am a research assistant so I follow after the researchers who are currently engaged in camera trapping, tree measuring, tree maintenance, and surveys on a plethora of birds. It’s been an amazing experience so far and I look forward to the next few weeks soaking in as much information as possible.

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We have also been enjoying the presence of our bird intern, Laura.

My name is Laura I am from Michigan, currently residing in Oklahoma. I am an aspiring ornithologist working towards my degree in fish and wildlife research. During my time in at Cloudbridge I will be collecting bird data by conducting point counts, and owl surveys for the next few months. Hit me up for a bunch of random bird facts!

Published Reports and other Suggested Reading

We are happy to announce that two new reports of research which took place at Cloudbridge, have been added to the website this month. Click on the link to take a look:

Hoving, Max. 2019. Tree species comparison in planted, naturally regenerated and old growth cloud forests. – Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences

[http://www.cloudbridge.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/2019-Tree-species-comparison-regenerating-cloud-forest-Hoving.pdf]

Romp, Marissa. 2019. A comparative study of different methodologies to determine mammal density in a cloud forest, Costa Rica.Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences

[http://www.cloudbridge.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Different-methods-mammal-density-Marissa-Romp.pdf]

We would also like to provide links to just a few of the many interesting environmentally themed articles that have been published this month:

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/19/science/bird-populations-america-canada.html

http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/09/book-excerpt-vaclav-smils-growth.html

https://ticotimes.net/2019/09/27/watch-costa-rica-receives-champions-of-the-earth-award-from-un

Last but not least…

Zachary Chang, and Outlook Expedition leader who visited us with a group last July, has generously shared some of the pictures he took at the reserve.  We are very glad that Zachary enjoyed his stay with us, and thankful that he is allowing us to share these photos with all of you!

 

 

 

 

 

 

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August 2019

Research and Volunteers:

Dylan  presented the preliminary results on a new camera trapping program we have been setting up in the reserve. The new program has set up 8 cameras in the reserve, that we rotate through 16 locations every 2 weeks. This allows us to cover more locations in the reserve with fewer resources, but still allows us to sample each location 2 weeks out of every month. While previously, camera traps in the reserve have been set up along trails. For this study, the locations were set up in a grid pattern across the reserve to randomize the locations and Dylan and various other interns and volunteers helped him break trails to each of the locations, some of which were quite challenging to reach! These new locations have already yielded some great images of rare and interesting animals, including: Armadillo, Tayra, Oncilla, Ocelot, Paca, Coyote, Cacomistle, and our second ever recorded Tapir!

Armadillo

Coyote

Tayra

Tapir

Paca

Oncilla

Ocelot

 


 

Leah Kahn finished up a study on Sulphur-winged Parakeets this month. Sulphur-winged Parakeets are a small parrot that are endemic to the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama. Found at altitudes between 1300-3000 m, these parrots have not been studied much and little is known about their biology. Leah was interested both in the food trees they used, as well as the parrots’ social interactions. She observed the parrots feeding on three main types of trees: Güitite (Acnistus arborescens), Guayaba (Psidium guajava), and Jocote (Spondias purpurea).
Having found a couple of fruit trees where the parrots regularly hung out every day, she also conducted daily activity budgets to determine how they spent their time and used these to see if the amount of time they spent on social activities changed between the wetter month of June and the drier month of July. This was done by observing a single individual for 5 minutes and recording what they were doing (social, comfort, alert, feeding, and locomotion) every 10 seconds. Leah found that the parrots spent less time feeding, but more time being social in July, although these results were not significant. She is hoping to be able to pursue a longer-term study in the future to be able to see if their behaviour changes throughout the year and if factors like weather have an impact on how they spend their time.
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Hi my name is Alina and I am from Germany. I‘ve been a volunteer already last year at Cloudbridge for a week. This year I am having an internship for five months at Cloudbridge. I am doing the camera trapping project to estimate the abundance of different species in the reserve. My greatest finds so far were a puma, an ocelot and a coyote! I hope I will catch a Jaguar or even a Tapir in the next four months on one of the 16 camera sites. Keep your fingers crossed! Pura Vida
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 I’m Emma from Australia! I came all this way after completing my bachelor of science to see the amazing floral and faunal diversity that Costa Rica has to offer. It has not disappointed and has given me a newfound appreciation for plants, birds, and more. I am researching hummingbird diets within Cloudbridge reserve, and have had the pleasure of watching them go about their business within their natural habitat. Stay tuned to see what I find!

Emma

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Eric Livasy was with us over the summer continuing our study on Mixed Species Foraging (MSF) flocks in the reserve. MSFs are when groups of birds of 2 or more species move through the forest together to forage. It’s thought that this is an adaptation to improve foraging success and provide additional protection against predators. While MSFs occur all over the world, they are particularly prevalent in the Neotropics and are poorly studied in mountain environments.

Building on the work done by our earlier MSF interns, Eric was looking at how MSF flocking changed throughout the day. He would survey the same trail 3 days in a row, one day starting at 6 am, the next at 8 am, and the last at 10 am. He found a slight decrease in the both the number of flocks and the number of individuals within flocks as the start time progressed, although there was not enough data to determine if these differences were significant.

Not surprisingly, the 2 most common birds in the reserve were also the 2 most common birds found in the MSFs, Common Chlorospingus and Slate-throated Redstart. However, Eric found that the Common Chlorospingus were much more abundant in the early morning flocks, while Slate-throated Redstart were more abundant in the later morning flocks. This finding raises a lot of questions about why this is occurring (possible competition between the two birds?) and warrants further study.

—————————————————————————-

Amanda Rajala and Gloria Greenstein were at Cloudbridge for several months working on a variety of projects, including our monthly owl surveys and our new bat survey. They used the Echo Meter Touch 2, a small device that attaches to a smartphone and detects the echolocation sounds that bats make while flying, to record the bats’ calls while out in the reserve at night. The device also provides a potential ID for the bat based on a database of bat echolocation recordings. However, the device’s database is still being developed for Central America, so many of the detections were not identified, but hopefully, as the database grows, we’ll be able to identify them in the future. Using bat detectors is a much more humane way of studying bats than mist netting and other methods of bat capture, and eliminates the dangers to humans of handling bats and potentially getting bitten by them.

Since June, 26 bat species were identified by the device, however, some of those identifications are questionable as some of them were species that are not known to be in Costa Rica. So there is still a lot of work to be done reviewing the data before we can draw any conclusions from it. However, some of our more reliable detections included: the Mexican Dog-Faced Bat (Cynomops mexicanus), the Hairy-Legged Myotis (Myotis keaysi), and the rare but widespread Northern Ghost (Diclidurus albus).
We’re looking forward to seeing where this new technology takes us and what we can learn from it!

Mexican Dog-faced Bat. Photo by: Jose G. Martinez-Fonseca. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/3178710

Hairy-legged Myotis. Photo by: Gerald Carter. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19896000

Northern Ghost. Photo by: Steven Easley. https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/9942017


 

 Jordan Chambers – I’m a 25 year old student residing in sunny California. I’m a landscaper by trade and I’ve been actively pursuing field biology and research for the past couple years. This is my second time at Cloudbridge and it definitely won’t be my last! I first arrived here in 2017 to conduct research on the native and migrant Warblers at Cloudbridge. This time around I’ve been working as a volunteer and part-time research assistant for some of the other projects, including the reforestation efforts, which are very dear to my heart. I’m so grateful to be back with my cloud-forest family, and I cant wait to return!

Jordan


 

Activity update:

Jenn Powell has done us proud with her participation in the Aguas Eternas 13 km Cross Country run.  Congratulations for finishing this gruelling run up the mountain, over streams and through the valleys!

 

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July 2019

A beautiful photo of a Talamanca Viper sent in by Ariadna Bach who visited Cloudbridge.

We welcome Carrie Visintainer the new manager of the Cloudbridge Nature Reserve. Carrie’s just arrived at Cloudbridge from Colorado. With a background in communications and non-profit management, she’s taking on responsibility for the overall management of the reserve, working closely with the volunteers and local employees. She has a deep love for wild places and is happy to be working with this dedicated team to conserve our natural resources for future generations. 

Research and Volunteers

Congrats to Kendal DeLyser. for her recent publication as co-author on this new paper about the impacts of forest management and disturbance on soil carbon! Kendal DeLyser is a past researcher at Cloudbridge. Here is a link to her paper. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112719304451


I’m Jenna and I’m a sustainability student from England. I am a volunteer at Cloudbridge which means I get to do a bit of everything, from getting muddy planting trees to going on bird surveys and setting up camera traps. Cloudbridge is a great place to learn about the wildlife here. I’m excited to get involved with the owl and bat surveys and paint some cool designs on the walls around the dormitories and classroom. 


Hi, I’m Greg, a professional Arboriculturalist and Conservationist from the South coast of England. I’m a six month conservation intern and have been at CloudBridge for six weeks. I work on the reforestation program where we are monitoring the growth rates of the trees in the newly planted, naturally regenerated and old growth sites. I have also be given the position of Volunteer coordinator, which involves taking out groups of base volunteers and school and collage groups to help with tree planting programs. Other things I do on base are look after the volunteers, maintainace, building furniture, organizes and plan projects, and I am also working as a tour guide. The reserve here is an amazing place with beautiful scenery fantastic wildlife and a great bunch of wonderful people. 

Greg

Greg out in the forest with another volunteer

My name is Fergus Jackson, I am from the North of England. I came to Costa Rica with GVI (Global Vision International) to do a 6 month internship. Having spent the first 3 in Tortuguero, I moved to Cloudbridge and am a bird researcher here, and I lead the bird point count surveys every week.

Fergus, seen here on the left is apparently a part of the ‘Forest Lichen Trio’

Hi, I’m Bert from Belgium. I’m here for 6 months helping out in Cloudbridge. I help with making bamboo bridges, trail maintenance, and tree planting.

Bert on the left enjoying a board game night in the welcome centre.

Ryan Andrews and Martin Stankalla finished up three month internships at Cloudbridge in July, where they had been working on the bird monitoring study. Ryan’s final presentation discussed the benefits and difficulties of using audio data in bird studies, in particular at Cloudbridge. Many birds are more likely to be detected audibly rather than visually, and in the dense forest of the reserve, this can be of great benefit in recording the presence of these species. However, while both audio and visual identifications are currently recorded during the bird monitoring study, only the visual data is used for analysis due to several issues associated with the reliability of audio data. First is the difficulty of identifying and learning the bird songs, as with a species list of 300 birds and each bird having several different kinds of calls, this is a massive undertaking, and difficult for short-term researchers to do. Second, some songs or calls are quite similar making a verifiable ID difficult. Third, there is a strong bias in audio data towards species that have very distinct calls, which can skew the data. One day Cloudbridge hopes to attract a long-term bird researcher to the reserve so we would be able to include audio data into the results, as this would bring a lot of value to the study!

Martin conducted an analysis of the results of the bird study since 2016. Overall, the most common birds found in the reserve were Common Chlorospingus and Slate-Throated Redstart. These birds are very versatile generalists and are also resident in the reserve year round. Their presence in the data compared to other birds may also be somewhat inflated as they are very vocal and active birds, making them easier to spot and record. Some of the other more abundant birds include several migratory warblers (Wilson’s Warbler, Tennessee Warbler, and Black-and-white Warbler), Northern Emerald Toucanet, a hummingbird (White-throated Mountain-Gem), and Sulphur-winged Parakeet. 
Looking at the habitat preferences of 4 of the most abundant birds: -Common Chlorospingus showed a preference for the mixed Planted/young naturally regenerating sites, -Slate-throated Redstart was found more in the mixed planted/regen and planted sites, and was not much present in the old growth sites,-Silver-throated Tanager showed a preference for the young naturally regenerating sites, and-Black Guan showed a preference for the planted sites.While these results were statistically significant, additional study is now needed to determine if the forest type or other factors (such as food availability, predation, inter- and infraspecific interactions, etc.) is driving these preferences.

As a side project, Ryan Andrews also photographed and attempted to catalogue some of the moths in the reserve. By simply leaving a light on on a white wall during the evening, Ryan was able to photograph around 500 different species of moths in around 2 weeks worth of observations. At the time he left, he had managed to identify around 138 species from his photographs. Identifying the rest of the them could be the work of a lifetime!


Education

Cloudbridge hosted 3 study abroad groups in July, including 2 from Broadreach https://www.gobroadreach.com from the US.  We also had Lord Williams School through Outlook Expeditions.  https://www.outlookexpeditions.com from the UK.    

  Broadreach groups were given a basic introduction to the cloud forest, worked with camera traps, had a local cooking class of traditional Costa Rican foods, participated in a climate change presentation and discussion, and spent a morning planting trees. 

The Lord Williams School (Outlook Expeditions) was a totally student led expedition who came to focus on service to the environment.  The group hiked while being presented with a Cloud forest introduction, studied camera trap images of our fauna and participated in the climate change discussion.  They spent the majority of their time and energy working on trail enhancement, building stairs on our principal trail and then they tackled a challenging tree planting day. Credit is due to the hearty ones who were the transporters carrying concrete blocks and crates of trees. Everyone slept well after their days of work. 

Broadreach students on the Introduction to a Cloud Forest hike.

Broadreach & Outlook Expedition groups team up for an awesome new enhancement planting.
They named every tree they planted!
Outlook Expedition students building stairs on the principal trail for improved safety.
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June 2019

Orchids can be seen all year round. It is a matter of looking carefully as they grow as hidden gems in the forest.


Research:


Jonathan Slifkin was here for 3 months continuing the work of Izzy Soane and Jeffrey Roth on studying Mixed Species Feeding Flocks (MSF) in the reserve. Mixed species feeding flocks are just that, flocks of birds of at least 2 different species moving and feeding together. While they are found around the world, they are particularly prevalent in the Neotropics. They are thought to provide antipredator benefits and/or facilitate foraging efficiency and can be negatively impacted by deforestation so can be seen as an indicator of forest health. 
Jonathan observed 31 different flocks ranging in size from 3 birds to 24 birds, and composed of between 2 species to 12 species. Out of 108 bird species observed during his surveys, 32 species were seen to participate in MSFs. Jonathan found that Common Chlorospingus were the most abundant bird species in MSFs by far, followed by Red-headed Barbet, Silver-throated Tanager, and Slate-throated Redstart. Jonathan also calculated the flocking propensity (likelyhood that a bird species will join a MSF) by comparing the total number of species seen during surveys with number of that species seen in a MSF. While Common Chlorospingus was the most abundant species, Red-headed Barbet and Black-cheeked Warbler had higher flocking propensities at 42% and 41%, while Common Chlorospingus was only at 30%. Barred Becard had the highest flocking propensity at 75%, but as only a few were observed, this number may not be accurate.
He also found that he observed a number of MSFs of larger size later in the day after the surveys were complete. As such he suggested altering the survey protocol to include surveys at different times of the day to see if more or larger flocks occur later in the day.
Images: Common Chlorospingus, Slate-throated Redstart, Species found in MSFs, Flocking Propensity, and Barred Becard.

SpeciesNumber of
observations outside mixed flocks
Number of
observations in mixed flocks
Flocking propensity.
Common
Chlorospingus
1185029.76%
Red-headed Barbet181341.94%
Silver-
throated
Tanager
411324.07%
Slate-throated Redstart711315.48%
Black-cheeked Warbler13940.91%
Barred 
Becard
2675.00%
Barred Becard
Common Chlorospingus
Slate-throated Redstart

Harry Elliott and Charlotte Smith from the United Kingdom have been at the reserve since April studying the diets of hummingbirds in the cloud forest. They observed 13 different hummingbird species feeding on 13 different plant species, as well as observing 3 different instances of hummingbirds eating insects. For understory species, heliconia species were the most commonly fed upon by hummingbirds and was used by several different species. For canopy species, there was a wider variety of plants used, but the most commonly used was Gonzalagunia rosea and Saurauia montana. 
While they were conducting their study they made a discovery! They observed a number of the hummingbirds feeding directly from the fruits of the tree. After some investigation, they found that this behaviour had only been mentioned very briefly a couple of times before in the literature and usually only in passing. As this was a very rare behaviour, they chose to look into in more depth and focused on observing the feeding at the S. montana trees. Locally called the ‘Snot Tree’, S. montana produce fruits that are very sweet and full of a sticky syrup (see photo). This allows the hummingbirds to suck up the syrup when they pierce the fruits. As the fruits were very popular with a number of the animals in the forest, ripe fruits were only available for a few weeks, after which they hummingbirds no longer visited the fruits, so Harry and Charlotte were very lucky to observe this behaviour when they did. They have submitted their observations of this unique behaviour to a journal for publication and we look forward to seeing their work in print!

Heliconia
Gonzalagunia rosea
Hummingbird feeding on Saurauia montana
Hummingbird feeding on Saurauia montana
‘Snot Tree’ fruit (Saurauia montana).

Agroforestry Project:

Three students from Borderless World Volunteers and McGill University in Canada were with us over the last few months doing a project on agroforestry. Agroforestry is the practice of growing trees alongside crops and within pastures. This provides a lot of benefits for the environment (increased biodiversity, erosion control, better soil quality), livestock and crops (provides shade and fodder, improves crop yields), and farmers (enhanced income in the form of cash crops from the trees). 
Before arriving, Cordelia, Megan, and Dasha raised funds to purchase and plant trees in local farmers fields. Upon arrival, they met with a number of people to learn about agroforestry and the best trees to plant in the area, and source trees to purchase, and went to local farmers markets to make contact with farmers and create some interest in the project. They ended up planting trees in the fields of our local workers (Edgar and Oscar), our neighbouring dairy farmer (Marcos), and the owner of Quesos Canaan (Willberth). With the aid of our volunteers and some local workers they hired to help, they spent a few intensive weeks prepping the land and planting a variety of fruit and forage trees in sugar cane and coffee plantations, as well as a dairy pasture. Quite a success!

The agroforestry project at Cloudbridge consisted of three volunteers – Megan, Cordelia, and Dasha – working on local farmers’ plots to improve their sustainability. Agroforestry is essentially the idea of creating food forests; a variety of tree species are grown alongside croplands or pastures. Our project grows from a deep appreciation for how forests provide lifelong support for communities, and we learned much from a community interested in improving its sustainability. The five-week-long project culminated in the planting of over 500 trees of 30 different species among the plots of four community members.

My name is Dasha, and I was an agroforestry project volunteer at Cloudbridge. I am majoring in Earth Systems science at McGill University. In my hometown of Saratoga, California, I’ve spent a lot of time volunteering for environmental and educational causes: tree planting organizations, nature camps for children, tutoring, a donkey sanctuary, an ocean cleanup organization. My most valued time is time spent away in nature, and I am highly passionate about any and every opportunity to give back to the planet! Working in the San Gerardo community on the agroforestry project was an incredibly exciting experience given the community’s openness to sustainability initiatives and our opportunity to plant so many food-providing trees!

My name is Megan, and I’m one of three girls that worked on an agroforestry project as a volunteer while living at Cloudbridge Nature Reserve. I’m currently studying cognitive and neurosciences at McGill University, with my hometown being Cooperstown, New York where I am an active volunteer in the medical and environmental communities. My house is set on a 30 acre apple orchard where I got my first taste of planting and caring for trees, and I jumped at the opportunity to help plant more diverse food forest systems with local farmers who will cherish them. I am passionate about causes such as this that not only give to people but also to the world around us, and I can’t wait to watch the success and developments of our project in future years!

Hi! I’m Cordelia Dingle and I ran the documentation and media for our agroforestry project with Cloudbridge Nature Reserve and Borderless World Volunteers along with Megan and Dasha, I am a student at McGill University. I am majoring in Geography: Urban Systems with a minor in computer science and environmental studies. Originally American, I grew up and went to school in both Montreal and Toronto. I’ve been a part of my school’s robotics team and blockchain hackathon, and well as leading Model UN and being a provincial level archer. was originally interested in planning and being part of this project because of my interest in learning how to run, execute and document/share sustainability initiatives. I can definitively say that working directly in a community was one of the most rewarding experiences of my life.

Fabian, Cordelia, Dasha, Willberth, and Megan
Quesos Canaan’s farm
Megan planting a tree
Planting trees on Oscar’s farm
Cordelia, Oscar, Dasha, and Megan
 Trees ready for planting in Marcos’s pasture
Edgar with Megan, Dasha and Cordelia

Hi, my name is Amanda and I’m originally from Vancouver, Canada but currently studying Conservation Biology in the UK. I came to Cloudbridge as a research assistant and am currently assisting on multiple surveys, mainly Sulphur-winged Parrakeets, bats and owls. 

Amanda


My name is Gloria Greenstein. I came to Cloudbridge in pursuit of my growing interest in field biology and conservation biology. The past year I have been focused on marine ecosystems and wished to use the opportunity to expand my horizons. Here I am able to gain experience assisting researchers on site in a variety of projects including: camera trapping, species surveilance, animal behavior, restoration monitoring, and developing my own hypothesis.

Gloria


Mike Pawlik from Poland was here for 3 months working on bird studies. His final month with us he undertook a small study to see if using non-native fruit feeders would attract additional birds to an area. His initial idea was that by providing a mixture of non-native and native fruits, these feeders could be used to enhance reforestation efforts as birds could help spread fruit tree and shrub seeds within the forest. He chose a study site that was known as a good bird site and set up a simple fruit feeder in an open area, and a second feeder in a more closed area. The feeders were baited with pineapple and banana the first week, a mixture of pineapple and banana and native fruits the second week, and only native fruits the 3rd week.. After a few days with no observations of birds using the feeders, he also installed a camera trap so he could monitor the feeder while he wasn’t present. 
Unfortunately, science doesn’t always work the way you expect it to and over his 3 weeks of observations at the feeders, not a single bird came to feed on the fruit. The reasons for this were not entirely clear, but may have been due to a number of different factors including: feeder placement, feeder style, site choice, not enough time for the birds to habituate to the presence of the fruit, native fruit choice, and mammals stealing the fruits. White-nosed Coatis were particularly adept at stealing the fruits. Mike brain-stormed a number of reasons for the difficulties he had with the study and came up with a list of changes that could be made to improve the study and hopefully have some success in the future. 
It just goes to show that science isn’t always about everything working perfectly the first time, and as much can be learned from failure as from success. Good for you for persevering Mike!

The Coati Thief
Feeder and Camera Trap Setup

Callum Winter was with us for 3 months studying the presence of leaf cutter ants and their nests along our trails. While he found a number of leaf cutter trails, single ants, and small groups, he also found a total of 5 nests near the trails. The nests were made out of a variety of materials including bark pieces, leaves, and sand and soil. He also found a large tree with nests of different materials built on different sides of the same tree.
Photos: Map nest locations; 3 examples of leaf cutter ant nests

Map of Nest Locations
3 examples of leaf cutter ant nests

Hi my name’s Savannah and I’m a research assistant here at Cloudbridge! I’ll be working on several projects with researchers as well as my own project studying owls and bats at the reserve with a few other assistants. So far I’ve gotten to work with butterflies, sulfur wing parakeets and a bit of camera trap exploring!

Savannah

Ellie Townsend was here for 3 months studying butterfly diversity to look at the effect of different habitats on butterfly presence and the impact of using different baits on the results. She set baited live traps in three different habitat types every week (planted, naturally regenerating, and old growth forest), rotating through the trails in the southern part of the reserve. Four different baits (banana, pineapple, dog dung, and fish sauce) were used during this study instead of just the fermented banana bait used previously. This was done to try to attract different species of butterflies to the bait traps instead of just fruit feeding butterflies.
Looking at the effectiveness of the baits, she found that they did not attract a significantly different number of butterflies, nor a significantly different number of species, to the traps. This is good news as it means each bait type is performing well. Looking at the community composition captured by the different baits, there was a difference in the species of butterflies attracted by the fruit baits (banana and pineapple), compared to the types of butterflies attracted by the stink baits (dog dung and fish sauce). This is also good as it means that the different baits are attracting different species, helping to diversify the butterflies caught in the study.
Comparing the different habitat types, she found that there was no significant difference in the number of butterflies nor species richness caught in the different habitats. Comparing community composition, she found that the natural regeneration and old growth habitats were most similar, although the planted habitat wasn’t too different from either of those. As the difference isn’t great, these results show there isn’t a dramatic difference between the three habitats in terms of providing butterfly habitat. This is good news in terms of our reforestation efforts and the overall health of the forest.
It will be interesting to continue this study with the new baits at different times throughout the year to see if these results change in the different seasons.
Graphs: Community composition comparison of fruit vs stink baits, community composition comparison of habitat typesPhotos: 3 different butterflies (sorry, don’t have the names)

Community Composition Comparison of Fruit vs Stink Baits

Greetings, my name is Eric Livasy, from the United States. I am a Tropical Bird Intern participating in the Mixed Species Foraging Flock Study. It is a dream come true to research the rich diversity of species in Costa Rica!

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May 2019

Annoucement :

Cloudbridge is under new ownership! Genevieve (Jenny) Giddy is proud to announce that Cloudbridge Nature Reserve and Educational Centre, located in the cloud forest of the Talamanca Mountain range of Southern Costa Rica has been acquired by Salish Coast Land and Marine Conservation Association from the United States. It also has a 530 acre Bio-Reserve called “Woodwardia” in British Columbia, Canada. The transfer of Cloudbridge will begin June 1st, 2019. Salish Coast is now entrusted with continuing the Cloudbridge mission launched back in 2002 when Jenny and Ian Giddy founded the reserve. Jenny and her partner Charles will still be visiting the reserve from time to time, but with three young grandchildren, she feels it is time to devote her energies to family, and environmental issues closer to home. Tom Gode, the long-time Director of the Reserve and his wife Linda Moskalyk, resident artist and arborist, will stay on in their house at Cloudbridge for the foreseeable future, though Saskatoon will still be their summer home. Salish Coast looks forward to stewarding Cloudbridge into the future. The combination of a temperate rainforest, with the endangered (CDF) Coastal Douglas fir Biogeoclimatic Zone in British Columbia joining the rare tropical montane cloud forest, in Costa Rica’s southern highlands is a great opportunity to “Bridge” these two unique bio-reserves and create a larger carbon-sink. With flora and fauna of unparalleled biodiversity that will add to the ever growing private conservation projects worldwide. Both are open to the public and will continue to add to the scientific community a place to monitor and address the climactic changes occurring to the planet. For further information Visit http://www.cloudbridge.org/ and https://www.woodwardia.land/ Contact James Mack, Executive Director of Salish Coast Land, Marine and Wildlife Conservation at 408-444-1200 USA and 604-486-0015 Canada.

Research:

In the summer of 2017, students from the University of Exeter and Falmouth University in the UK did a preliminary investigation of the moth species of the reserve while trying out several types of moth traps. In the process they photographed 212 unique species and were able to identify 40 of them to species. Identifying moths is really difficult, so we are very happy with this result. http://www.cloudbridge.org/wpcontent/uploads/2019/05/2019_Moth_Diversity_Cloudbridge_Wells_etal.pdf

Hello my name is Leah M. Kahn, I’m a senior student at the State University of New York at Cobleskill, School of Environmental Science and Technology. I am a Wildlife Management student with a passion for parrots and behavioral ecology. I am an all-around bird nerd who loves exploring new places and birds to add to my personal life list. I came to Cloudbridge to study the elusive Sulphur-winged parakeet as a research intern. These little guys are prevalent on the reserve yet very much understudied. I am here to conduct visual encounter surveys to helped better understand how these parrots spend their time throughout the day. Sulphur-wings are commonly seen in flocks of 15-20 and when flying by, clearly make their presences known and heard.
Leah

Hello! My name is Ryan Andrews and I am an intern at Cloudbridge. I am working on the longterm bird study, conducting point counts and doing walking surveys. I have been a birder for most of my life but wanted to get involved on the field work side of things and Cloudbridge provided an excellent opportunity for this. I hope to increase my skill as a field biologist and learn as much about the birds and ecology of Costa Rica during my stay here.
Ryan – this photo not taken at Cloudbridge but somewhere on one of his bird watching expeditions. Ryan is from California , USA

“My name is Dylan and up until now my background has been very much focused on the marine environment. As part of my masters course I applied to spend three months working at Cloudbridge. It appealed to me as I wanted to challenge myself by working in an environment that was relatively unknown to me. While here I will be helping to set up a long term camera trap study investigating the reserves mammal species.”
Dylan

My name is Martin Stankalla, I’m from Germany, 28 years old and finished my Master degree in Ecology last year. I decided to take this opportunity after my studies to go on a one year journey through Colombia, Ecuador and Costa Rica. After working with sea turtles on the Galapagos Islands I’m now  looking for practical experience in monitoring birds here in Cloudbridge. I really hope to see a Quetzal!
I am Moana, 19 years old, from Germany and I was a volunteer at Cloudbridge for 2 weeks. I’ve always loved to travel and to be surrounded by nature. So when I decided to go to Costa Rica, I wanted to see all of it. So I did my research and found Cloudbridge. As a volunteer l take care of the garden and the hiking trails, but I also helped with the butterfly research. At Cloudbridge I learned more about environment and animals. I also got to know lot’s of new friends from all around the world. I will definitely come back!

Other volunteers in May included; Samira Turowski – Germany, Elisha Leon – Germany. Volunteers have been working on trail work, painting, gardening & landscaping, bamboo bridge construction and assisting researchers.
My name is Fabian and I am from Germany. I am here in cloudbridge because I decided to do volunteering in nature conservation for 5 weeks. Now I have already done 3 weeks and it is just amazing and even more than I expected. I can work here everyday on something different and I also can go with researchers and help them at their research. I am enjoying it to live here in the middle of pure nature and see so many different species of flora and fauna.

Discoveries:

Two new bird species have been seen in the reserve in May by our bird interns! The Crested Caracara (Caracara cheriway) was spotted and photographed by Jonathan Slifkin, and the Black-bellied Hummingbird (Eupherusa nigriventris) was also spotted by Michał Pawlik. Both were unusual sightings for this area. Well done guys! Photos: 1 and 2, Crested Caracara taken by Jonathan Slifkin; 3, Black-bellied Hummingbird from Neotropical Birds Online (https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/blbhum1/overview).

Visitors:

Cloudbridge welcomed the 30 member Jazz Band from Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. It was exciting as we toured to hear several young musicians discussing the possibility of doing a music internship at Cloudbridge where they could incorporate music composition in the cloud forest.
Ball State University Jazz Band.

May 14-16 we were fortunate to be visited by a group from Aeres MBO Almere.  These students come from a unique MBO school in Flevold, Netherlands with courses that connect city and nature.  The group came directly from Work with Nature  https://work-with-nature.com/en/  on the Caribbean coast.  Matthijs Bol, one of the founders of Work With Nature was an intern at Cloudbridge in 2009.  It is always great to work with a past Cloudbridge researcher.
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April 2019

The Heleconias are once again in full bloom.


Recent Reviews

We do like to hear from our visitors. Thank you for sending in reviews on Trip Advisor and Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cloudbridge.nature.reserve/

https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attraction_Review-g309263-d4174164-Reviews-Cloudbridge_Nature_Reserve-Chirripo_National_Park_Province_of_San_Jose.html#REVIEWS

Photos of some of our reviewers enjoying their experiences at Cloudbridge.

Trip Advisor Review:

Forget Monteverde, Go Here instead: “I spent two months in Costa Rica and my one day spent at Cloudbridge was hands down one of the absolute highlights. Not only is it not plagued by hordes of tourists like you’ll find at Monteverde/Santa Elena and elsewhere along the tourist path, the scenery is stunning with wild rivers rushing over big boulders, beautiful waterfalls,mountain breezes carrying strange and wonderful spicy smells, an abundance of wildlife (if you’re lucky you might see Quetzals–we did), a network of pretty great trails and barely any other visitors (at least at the time we were there!). Couldn’t recommend it any higher– also the fact that entry is by donation is very attractive: you pay what you felt your visit was worth.”

On that rare occasion that we get a less positive review it is often due to miscommunications or bad timing. An example of this was when some young men drove up to Cloudbridge and didn’t actually find their way to the reserve. They ended up stopping at a reserve down the road where the owners were going to charge $25 to hike. They were upset because they knew that the Cloudbridge entrance is by donation during the week days. They wrote a bad review saying that Cloudbridge should let people know of such a drastic price change. As it turns out they were just at the wrong place. We try hard to explain some of the circumstances or miscommunications that result in those reviews. Please read our responses. We want every visitor to come away with a feeling of total nature enjoyment and nothing less.


Research and Volunteers:

Dara Dunlop from the UK (University of Birmingham) finished her research on Fresh Water Ecology. She studied the benthic macro-invertebrates in 3 streams at Cloudbridge. These are small animals that live on, under, and around rocks and sediment in the streams. Their numbers are dropping rapidly world wide. Even with that dire news she found that the species richness at Cloudbridge was high, and the water quality was good. This could be attributed to the reforestation of the area and few disturbances of human activity.

The three orders that indicate good water quality are; -Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), Tricoptera (caddisflies)
The Sentinal creek was one of the water bodies that she researched.
Dara

Our names are Harry Elliott and Charlotte Smith and we both come from the UK. Harry studied Environmental Conservation at Bangor University while Charlotte studied Zoology at Reading University. Since graduating in 2017, Harry has been working as a teacher at a special educational school where he used circus skills and outdoor learning as a form of therapy. Meanwhile, Charlotte interned as a reserve warden with the RSPB, followed by working as an Ecological consultant. We have just finished 3 months working on a project on the small island of Bonaire in the Caribbean, where we coordinated the countries annual roost count for the Yellow-shouldered Amazon parrot. After arriving in Costa Rica we wanted to expand our experience and increase our bird ID skills, and so we decided to come to Cloudbridge. We are conducting a study on Hummingbirds to see how they utilize the habitat within Cloudbridge. We are interested in finding out what plants they feed from, and if this changes between species.

Harry

Charlotte Smith

Ellenor Townsend – England

Hi I’m Ellie and I’m from England. I came to Cloudbridge because I wanted an adventure and to do something worthwhile (that was preferably wildlife related). Cloudbridge has more than met those expectations. I’m currently working on the long term butterfly project here and have discovered that butterflies are cunningly deceptive escape artists but well worth the time to study.

Ellie excited in the jungle

My name is Callum McGregor Winter. I am from the UK. The reason I am at Cloudbridge is because this is part of my 6-month internship, that I’m doing with GVI. (Global Vision International) I have already done 3 months prior to coming to Cloudbridge and now I will be studying the abundance of ants at for the next 3 months.


Michal Pawlik – Poland

Hi everybody! My name is Michał but for English speakers just call me Mike! I came a long way from Wrocław, Poland.

I’m one of the new interns, currently working on bird biodiversity in Cloudbridge. I opted for the internship to get more in field experience before I go back to uni and start my Masters degree. In future I would like to work with wildlife as a field biologist so Cloudbridge is a great opportunity for me to test my knowledge, skills and stamina!

Michal

Kiana Safford – USA

Hello, my name is Kiana, I’m from Washington State, and I recently graduated with a Bachelors in Biology and a minor in Environmental studies. Before coming to Cloudebridge, I was an intern at Tortuguero National Park for 3 months helping out with forest biodiversity projects within the park. I came to Cloudebridge as an intern to get more field experience in research and to learn more about the Costa Rican wildlife. I love the outdoors, animals, and exploring new environments, so I thought this would be a great opportunity for me to both do what I love and get a feel for what I’d possibly want to do in the future. During my time here I will be recording the bird species diversity in different forest types and hopefully come up with an independent research question to further look into.


Jonathan Slifkin – USA

My name is Jonathan Slifkin and I’m from New York City. I am a bird research intern at Cloudbridge where I will be taking over a long-term survey of mixed species feeding flocks in the reserve. I am a lifelong bird enthusiast, and since graduating from college in 2017 I have spent most of my time traveling the world to see and photograph birds. Working at Cloudbridge is a great opportunity for me to gain experience in research and fieldwork, as well as a great introduction to Neotropical birding.

Jonathan confirmed another bird species! So far he’s found two new species for Cloudbridge in just over a week at the reserve. The Ovenbird was new to the list, and the Canada Warbler had been reported once before, but never confirmed, and now it has been.

Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) Photo by Jonathon Slifkin
Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) Photo by Jonathan Slifkin


Jonathan

Website Update

The moth species list is up on our website. You can find it here: http://www.cloudbridge.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Moth-Species-List-Cloudbridge-14Mar19.pdf

Watch the blog next month for a full report by Exeter University – Moth Diversity at Cloudbridge.


Visits and entrance information:

Cloudbridge has become quite popular and while we appreciate the opportunity to share the wonders of the cloud forest with the public it is reaching the point of being unsustainable on Sundays and holiday weeks.  So effective 15 April 2019 Cloudbridge  has initiated an entrance fee for Sundays and holiday weeks.  In an effort to continue to be accessible to everyone Cloudbridge will continue to be open by donation all days except for Sundays and holiday weeks. Cloudbridge is open every day from sunrise to sunset.

Cloudbridge Fees for Sundays and Holiday weeks:

  • Tourists $7.00 USD or 4,000 colones
  • Children under 16 accompanied by parents Free
  • Costa Rican National Adults 2,000 colones

All other days during the week are still by donation.


Training Annoucement:

3 of our staff from Cloudbridge have previously taken the climate change training through the Climate Reality Project. One of the upcoming sessions is in Minneapolis Minnesota this year. The training will be hosted by chairman and founder, former US Vice President Al Gore. Ken Berlin, the president and CEO of the Climate Reality Project will also be speaking.

We highly recommend this training program if you are at all interested in making positive change happen. The training program is free of charge. You just have to get yourself there. For anyone living in Canada or the northern US this is a great opportunity close by to learn more about climate change and join the project. Applications have to be in by June 19th.

https://www.climaterealityproject.org/apply/minnesota


Gallery

More beautiful photos by Jonathan Slifkin

Bay-headed Tanager
Black-cheeked Warbler
Costa Rican Warbler
Grey-tailed (White-throated) Mountain Gem
Red-headed Barbet

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